Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access


Full Text:


Today language studies are one of the most popular international practices, both for everyday purposes and academic reasons. That is why development and implementation of reliable tools and methods for testing and assessment of language proficiency have become an important goal for instructors and linguists across the globe. To promote a universal understanding of the concepts in this area of knowledge there should exist a comprehensive terminology system of testing and assessment. Borrowing of terms from a more developed terminology system has become a common practice, but whether it always brings satisfactory results remains to be seen. This research paper aims at describing the techniques of integrating English language testing and assessment terms into Russian. In order to establish those techniques we conducted the comparative analysis of the most frequently used English terms on language testing and assessment based on their appearance in specialized texts on the subject and their Russian equivalents. The analysis procedure involved examining the phonetic and orthographic form, definitions and contextual usage of both the original terms and their equivalent borrowed into Russian language. Based on that, we can point out the most productive ways of transferring these terms into Russian, in particular, using calques, half-calques and transformational translation. Those methods prove to be effective in terms of securing the transparency of the meaning and providing a universal understanding of the concepts behind the terms which is necessary for successful communication of the experts in the field on international level and development of valid testing instruments. Nevertheless, integration of some terms is less successful due to the significant discrepancies in meaning between the original and borrowed terms leading to misunderstanding and potentially faulty testing and assessment practices. Therefore, the subject matter of borrowing terms in the abovementioned area shall be addressed in a more thorough fashion, and there should be more studies conducted on this issue. 

About the Authors

Yu. Polshina
Far Eastern Federal University
Russian Federation

Yulia Polshina - Candidate of Philological Science, Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics and Intercultural Communication, School of Regional and International Studies 

690000 Vladivostok, Praporschika Komarova St. 31A, ap. 40

E. Bondareva
Far Eastern Federal University
Russian Federation

Ekaterina Bondareva - Senior Instructor, Department of Linguistics and Intercultural Communication, School of Regional and International Studies

690000 Vladivostok, Praporschika Komarova St. 31A, ap. 40


1. Alimov, V.V. (2015). Theory of translation: reference book for linguists and translators. (2nd ed.). Moscow: LENAND.

2. Bailey, K.M. (1998). Learning about Language Assessment: Dilemmas, Decisions, and Directions. Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

3. Bazalina, E.N. (2009). The problem of translating terms in scientific and technical texts. The bulletin of Maikop State Technological University, Linguistics, 1, 102-107.

4. Danilenko, V.P. (1977). Russkaya terminologia: opit lingvisticheskogo analiza (Russian terminology: linguistic approach). Moscow: Nauka.

5. Fulcher, G. (2010). Practical Language Testing. Hodder Education.

6. Gak, V.G. (1974). Assimetria lingvisticheskogo znaka i nekotoriye obschie problem terminologii (Assymetry of linguistic signs and some general issues of terminology). Semiotic problems of language in science, terminology and information studies: materials of the conference, 68-71.

7. Golovin, B.N. (1972). O nekotorykh problemakh izuchenia termina (On some issues concerning terminology studies). Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta (Moscow University Journal), Philology (9) series, №5, 49-59.

8. Golovin, B.N., Kobrin, R.Yu. (1987). Lingvisticheskie osnovy uchenia o terminakh (Linguistic basics of terminology studies). Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola.

9. Grinev-Grinevich, S.V. (2008). Terminovedenie (Terminology Studies). Moscow; Academia.

10. Gvozdeva, M.S. (2014). Oxymoron and metaphorical nature of modern assessment procedures in Russia. Lifelong Education: XXI Century, 4(8).

11. Ibáñez, M.S. (2014). Semantic characterization of terms as a trace of terminological dependency. Lexical semantic approaches to terminology, Special issue of Terminology, 20:2, 171-197.

12. Kandelaki, T.L. (1977). Semantika i motivirovannost terminov (Semantics and motivation of terms). Moscow: Nauka.

13. Kashkareva, O. N. Test kak odno iz sredstv kontrolya obuchenia inostrannomu yaziku (Test as a tool for foreign language assessment). Accessed 28 May 2016.

14. Khomenko, S.A., Tsvetkova, E.E., Basovets, I.M. (2004). Osnovy teorii i praktiki perevoda nauchno-tekhnicheskogo teksta s angliyskogo yazika na russkiy (Basic theory and practice of translation from English into Russian) Minsk: BNTU.

15. Klimenko, M.V. (2015). Formative assessment as a means of training efficiency increasing for future teachers of English. Vestnik Bryanskogo Universiteta (Bryansk University Journal), 1, 35-37.

16. Komissarov, V.N. (1990). Teoria perevoda (lingvisticheskie aspecty) (Theory of tRanslation (linguistic aspects). Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola.

17. Kovalenko, A.Ya. (2003). Obschiy kurs nauchno-tekhnicheskogo perevoda: posobie po perevodu s angliyskogo yazika na pusskiy (Basic course of translating scientific and technical texts: manual on translation from English into Russian). Kiev: INKOS.

18. Leichik, V.M. (1986). O yazykovom substrate termina (On the linguistic substrate of terms). Voprosy Jazykoznanija (Topics in the Study of Language), 5, 87 – 97.

19. Leichik, V.M. (2007). Terminovedenie: predmet, metody, struktura (Terminology studies: subject matter, methods, structure). Moscow: LKI Publishing.

20. Lotte, D.S. (1982). Voprosy zaimstvovania i uporyadochenia imoyazychnikh terminov i terminoelementov (Borrowing and classification of foreign terms and term elements). Moscow: Nauka.

21. Marshman, E. (2014). Enriching terminology resources with knowledge-rich contexts. A case study. Lexical semantic approaches to terminology, Special issue of Terminology, 20:2, 225-249.

22. Messik, S. (1996). Validity and washback in language testing. Language Testing, 13:3, 241-256.

23. Popova, L.V. (2011). Lingvisticheskiy termin: problema kachestva (Opyt sostavlenia “Kompleksnogo slovarya terminov funkstionalnoi grammatiki”) (Linguistic term: quality issues (based on creating “The Complex Dictionary of Terms in Functional Grammar”). (2nd ed.). Moscow: FLINTA.

24. Retsker, Ya.I. (2007). Teoria perevoda i perevodcheskaya praktika. Ocherki lingvisticheskoi teorii perevoda (Theory of translation and translation practice. Review of linguistic theory of translation). Moscow: R. Valent.

25. Rivlina, A.A. (2010). On “Restoration” and “Levelling” of Borrowings in the Process of Linguistic Internationalization. The Humanities And Social Studies in the Far East, 2 (26), 11 – 15.

26. Shvetser, A.D. (1973). Perevod i lingvistika (Gazetno-informatsionniy i voennopublitsisticheskiy perevod) (Translation and linguistics (Translation of newspaper texts and military publicistic writing). Moscow: Voenizdat.

27. Sukhorukova, N.V., Martysheva, E.M., Sentsov, A.E. (2011). Testing in foreign languages teaching. Filologicheskie Nauki. Voprosi Teorii i Praktiki (Philological Studies. Theory and Practice Issues), 4 (11), 149-152.

28. Tsukina, F.A. (1988). Terminologia i perevod (k osnovam sopostavitelnogo terminovedenia) (Terminology and translation (basics of comparative terminological studies). Lviv: Vischa Shkola.

29. Vernigorova, V.A. (2010). Tselesoobraznost prepodavania angliyskogo yazika po sisteme IELTS v vysshykh uchebnykh zavedeniakh Rossii. Mezhdunarodniye sertifikaty: moda ili neobkhodimost? (Viability of teaching English using IELTS system in Russian higher education institutions. International language certificates: a trend or a necessity?) Molodoi Ucheniy (Young Scientist), 12 (23), 95-100.

30. Vinogradov, V.S. (2003). Lexicologia ispanskogo yazika (Lexicology of Spanish Language). (2nd ed.). Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola.

31. Vinokur, P.O. (1939). O nekotorykh yavleniakh slovoobrazovania v russkoi tekhnicheskoi terminology (On some word formation patterns in Russian scientific terminology). Trudy MIIFLI, 5, 5-6.

32. Wall, D. (1997). Impact and washback in language testing. In C. Clapham & D. Corson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education, Vol. 7. Language testing and assessment. (pp. 291-302). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

Supplementary files

For citation: Polshina Y., Bondareva E. INTERGRATION OF LANGUAGE TESTING AND ASSESSMENT TERMS FROM ENGLISH INTO RUSSIAN. Focus on Language Education and Research. 2019;1(1):9-15.

Views: 57


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.